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Last week, manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline sought Food and Drug Administration permission to sell a booster; competitor Aventis Pasteur isn't far behind

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With outbreaks striking teenagers and adults, the government soon will decide if it's time for booster shots against the cough so violent it can break a rib. Last week, manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline sought Food and Drug Administration permission to sell a booster; competitor Aventis Pasteur isn't far behind.

While boosters are debated, however, don't lose sight of the real risk: Whooping cough can kill newborns before they start getting their vaccinations. And while older patients usually recover, they can easily spread the disease, known medically as pertussis, to infants.

"Parents who have very young infants need to get them vaccinated as early as possible," advises Dr. Trudy Murphy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. Anyone who's coughing should "avoid contact with young infants on the chance this maybe is unrecognized pertussis."

Pertussis is a bacterial infection. Initial coldlike symptoms lead to fits of 15 to 20 coughs in a row that leave patients gasping for air — often, but not always, with a high-pitched "whoop."

The incidence of pertussis plummeted in industrialized nations after vaccination began in the 1940s. It now is on the rise again globally.

Why isn't clear, but it's thought to be at least partly due to waning immunity. Children get five doses of pertussis vaccine between ages 2 months and 6 years. The protection begins to drop five to 10 years after the last shot.

In the United States, a preliminary CDC count found more than 11,000 pertussis cases last year. That's up from 9,771 the previous year, and the most recorded in three decades.

"We know that's an underestimate," Murphy said.

Experts say there may be 10 times as many cases, even more. Studies suggest almost a quarter of people with coughs that last longer than two weeks have undiagnosed pertussis, says Dr. Kathryn Edwards of Vanderbilt University.

In fact, about a third of CDC-recorded cases are among adolescents, which even health professionals may not realize. So far this year, CDC has counted outbreaks, most involving teens, in 11 states, including a Chicago-area one that has involved more than 100 cases since March.

"I really thought it was a disease of the Depression," said Monika Burke, a Philadelphia nurse who was stunned when her 15-year-old daughter, Sophia, caught whooping cough in May.

A doctor first diagnosed a viral infection. But Sophia was having 30 or 구미출장마사지 40 coughing fits a day, occasionally so violent they'd trigger vomiting. So the doctor prescribed antibiotics and performed a blood test for pertussis. By the time test results came back a week later, her 12-year-old brother was sick, too.

Enter the booster debate. Proponents say booster shots for older ages could prevent misery and school and work absences, plus indirectly protect vulnerable infants: Since 1990, pertussis has risen 72 percent among babies younger than 4 months, the age when their vaccine protection begins to kick in.

Studies show that giving one-third of youngsters' pertussis vaccine doses to teens and adults can safely boost waning immunity. Already, boosters are offered in Canada, Germany, France and Australia.

Here, Glaxo last week asked the FDA to approve its Boostrix version for teens. The idea: People are supposed to get boosters against two other diseases, tetanus and diphtheria, every decade, including one for 11- to 18-year-olds. Boostrix simply adds a pertussis booster to the scheduled adolescent shot.

Competitor Aventis Pasteur wants to target adults, too. It is preparing to seek FDA approval to sell its Adacel pertussis-tetanus-diphtheria booster to ages 11 through 64.

Once FDA makes sales decisions, expected early next year, a CDC-appointed committee must recommend who should get whichever shots are sold. Adolescents likely will be the first candidates, noted Vanderbilt's Edwards. After all, they wouldn't require an extra doctor's visit or needle prick.

Less is known about adult pertussis risk. Still, new parents and infant caregivers and health workers are logical next choices "so we can cocoon babies," she said. "It's the babies that could die."

By Lauran Neergaard
asked Jun 27 by JonasStein39 (120 points)

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நியூ இரா சிட்டி கேள்வி மற்றும் பதில் வலைதலத் திற்கு வரவேற்கிறோம். , நீங்கள் உங்கள் கேள்விகளுக்கு மற்ற சமூக உறுப்பினர்களின் மூலமாக பதில்களை பெற முடியும். எவர் ஒருவர் 100 கேள்விகள் அல்லது 100 பதில்கள் கொடுக்கிறார்களோ அவர்கள் லங்காவி - மலேசியாவில் நடைபெறும் "ஐ 2 ஐ" பயிற்சி பட்டறையில் இலவசமாக*** கலந்து கொள்ள தகுதிபெறுகிறார்கள். "ஐ 2 ஐ" பயிற்சி பட்டறை மே - 2017 இல் நடைபெற உள்ளது. கேட்கப்படும் அல்லது பதிலளிக்கும் ஒவ்வொரு கேள்விக்கும் 40 மதிப்பெண்கள் வழங்கப்படும். முதலில் 4000 மதிப்பெண்கள் எடுக்கும் நபர் இலவசமாக*** "ஐ 2ஐ" பயிற்சி பட்டறையில் கலந்துகொள்ள வாய்ப்பு அளிக்கப்படும். நீங்கள் புள்ளிகள் பெற கேள்விகள் குறைந்தபட்சம் 160 வார்த்தைகள் மற்றும் 600 வார்த்தைகளுக்கு மிகாமல் . இருக்கவேண்டும். உங்கள் கேள்விகளுக்கு 7 நாட்களுக்குள் பதில் அளிக்கவில்லை என்றல், கேள்வி வலைத்தளத்தில் இருந்து நீக்கப்படும். *** இது ஒரு சில நிபந்தனைகளுக்கு உட்பட்டது
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